Posts tagged with "Nature Communications"

Crocodiles rock! The huge reptiles have pH-sensing ability that we could use to resist fungal infections

March 3, 2023

A new study conducted at La Trobe University in Australia has revealed how crocodiles resist fatal fungal infections using a unique pH sensing mechanism, despite living in filthy water, reports EurekaAlert.

Published in the March edition of Nature Communications, the research could be used to create targeted treatment for fungal infections in humans. Such infections are becoming increasingly frequent due to growing antibiotic resistance.

Lead author from La Trobe University, Scott Williams, focused on the crocodiles’s ‘defensins’—small proteins that detect and announce an infection to the immune system.

“We solved structures of crocodile defensins and they look surprisingly like the same proteins in humans, which means we could use them as a template to treat fungal infections in humans,” Williams said.

“Crocodiles have great antifungal defenses and hopefully we’ll be able to adapt their defense to our own needs.”

Williams said it’s the first time this function has been found in any plant or animal.

“We haven’t seen the pH sensing mechanism in any other animal or plant. The defensins are able to change their activity based on the pH environment, so we could engineer other defensins to turn off or on depending on the presence of infection,” Scott Williams said.

“Some therapeutic treatments act on healthy cells by accident whereas this mechanism could help to reduce these off-target affects and focus on what’s harmful.”

Senior author Professor Mark Hulett said that the study is also the first to document the structure of the defensin membrane attack in high resolution.

“Using the power of the Australian Synchrotron, together with co-author Professor Marc Kvansakul, we were able generate structural data to define how defensins attack and kill fungal pathogens,” Hulett said.

“Consequently, our findings provide a model for understanding the anti-microbial activity of other defensins including those in humans.”

For this study, Professor Hulett harvested the crocodile tissue with the help of John Lever and John McGrath from the Koorana Crocodile Farm in Yeppoon, Queensland, the first commercial crocodile farm in Australia.

The findings of the study could allow researchers in the future to engineer defensins with pH-dependent activity in biotechnology and therapeutic applications, like treating serious infections in humans.

Research contact: @EurekAlert

Too much information (TMI) is now a worldwide problem

April 17, 2019

Are you media-bashed? Are there just too many tweets, hashtags, news reports, Facebook comments, curated photos, streaming videos, surveys, petitions, and emails for you to process in a day—and more coming all the time?

You have plenty of company—based on findings of a study conducted in Europe by the Technical University of Denmark, Technische Universität Berlin, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, and University College Cork; and published by the journal, Nature Communications.

Indeed, researchers have found that our collective attention span is narrowing due to the negative effects of an overabundance of social media, plus the hectic 24-hour news cycle to which we exposed.

What’s more, collectively, sociologists, psychologists, and teachers have warned of an emerging crisis stemming from a  fear of missing out (FOMO), the pressure to keep up-to-date on social media, and breaking news coming at us 24/7. So far, the evidence to support these claims has only been hinted at or has been largely anecdotal. There has been an obvious lack of a strong empirical foundation.

“It seems that the allocated attention in our collective minds has a certain size, but that the cultural items competing for that attention have become more densely packed. This would support the claim that it has indeed become more difficult to keep up to date on the news cycle, for example.” says Professor Sune Lehmann from DTU Compute.

The scientists have studied Twitter data from 2013 to 2016, books from Google Books going back 100 years, movie ticket sales going back 40 years, and citations of scientific publications from the last 25 years. In addition, they have gathered data from Google Trends (2010-2018), Reddit (2010-2015), and Wikipedia (2012-2017).

When looking into the global daily top 50 hashtags on Twitter, the scientists found that peaks became increasingly steep and frequent: In 2013 a hashtag stayed in the top 50 for an average of 17.5 hours. This gradually decreases to 11.9 hours in 2016.

This trend is mirrored when looking at other domains, online and offline–and covering different periods. Looking, for instance, at the occurrence of the same five-word phrases (n-grams) in Google Books for the past 100 years, and the success of top box office movies. The same goes for Google searches and the number of Reddit comments on individual submissions.

“We wanted to understand which mechanisms could drive this behavior. Picturing topics as species that feed on human attention, we designed a mathematical model with three basic ingredients: “hotness,” aging, and the thirst for something new.” says Dr. Philipp Hövel, lecturer for applied mathematics, University College Cork.

When more content is produced in less time, it exhausts the collective attention earlier. The shortened peak of public interest for one topic is directly followed by the next topic, because of the fierce competition for novelty.

“The one parameter in the model that was key in replicating the empirical findings was the input rate— the abundance of information. The world has become increasingly well connected in the past decades. This means that content is increasing in volume, which exhausts our attention and our urge for ‘newness’ causes us to collectively switch between topics more rapidly.” says postdoc Philipp Lorenz-Spreen, Max Planck Institute for Human Development.

Since the available amount of attention remains more or less the same, the result is that people are more rapidly made aware of something happening and lose interest more quickly. However, the study does not address attention span on the level of the individual person, says Sune Lehmann:

Our data only supports the claim that our collective attention span is narrowing. Therefore, as a next step, it would be interesting to look into how this affects individuals, since the observed developments may have negative implications for an individual’s ability to evaluate the information they consume. Acceleration increases, for example, the pressure on journalists to keep up with an ever-changing news landscape. We hope that more research in this direction will inform the way we design new communication systems, such that information quality does not suffer even when new topics appear at increasing rates.”

Research contact: @DTUtweet